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Korean J Gastroenterol  <  Volume 74(6); 2019 <  Articles

Korean J Gastroenterol 2019; 74(6): 314-320  https://doi.org/10.4166/kjg.2019.74.6.314
Role of Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: Novel Insights and Potential Intervention Strategies
Birhanu Woldeamlak, Ketsela Yirdaw1 and Belete Biadgo1
Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Gondar Hospital; Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar1, Gondar, Ethiopia
Correspondence to: Belete Biadgo, Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Po.box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. Tel: +251-91-829-5071, Fax: +251-58-111-7678, E-mail: beletebiadigo@yahoo.com, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4468-0242
Received: November 27, 2018; Revised: January 9, 2019; Accepted: January 23, 2019; Published online: December 25, 2019.
© The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology. All rights reserved.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become one of the fastest growing public health problems worldwide. The disease is believed to involve a complex process involving genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. The human intestine harbors hundreds of trillions of bacteria, as well as bacteriophage particles, viruses, fungi, and archaea, which constitute a complex and dynamic ecosystem referred to as the gut microbiota. Increasing evidence has indicated changes in the gut microbiota composition or function in type 2 diabetic patients. An analysis of ‘dysbiosis’ enables the detection of alterations in the specific bacteria, clusters of bacteria, or bacterial functions associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. These bacteria are involved predominantly in the control of inflammation and energy homeostasis. This review attempts to show that the gut microbiota are important factors for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and are important for the treatment of gut microbiota dysbiosis through bariatric surgery, fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, and probiotics.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Gastrointestinal microbiome


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